Manual testing is a kind of software testing in which test cases are run by hand instead of employing an automated tool. Test cases define what needs to be done to put a system through its paces. It specifies things like the activities that must be carried out in the system or the input data values that must be entered into the system, and the expected results throughout the test case’s execution. Manual Software testing requires no expertise in automated testing tools, only understanding of manual testing processes
The inspector manually executes all test cases from the standpoint of the end user. It checks to see whether the application is operating as described in the requirement specification. The Requirement Traceability Matrix [RTM] is a document that guarantees all test cases have been covered. It is created prior to the test execution process to guarantee that no test cases for the given requirement are overlooked. Test cases are created and executed in order to finish almost 100 percent of the software application. Their reports are likewise created manually. Manual testing requires no expertise in automated testing tools, only understanding of manual testing processes
Manual testing is one of the most essential evaluation methods because it can detect both apparent and hidden software defects. A defect is defined as the discrepancy between the intended output and the output provided by the software. If the tester discovers a flaw in the software, he communicates it to the developer, who subsequently repairs the flaws and returns the application to the tester for retesting.
Manual testing is required before automated testing for each and every newly produced product. Even though testing takes a significant amount of time and work, it ensures that the program is bug-free.
To summarize, the primary goal of manual testing is to:
Guarantee that the app is error-free and,
Guarantee that it operates in accordance with the functional requirements stated.
Such testing ensures that the system is of high quality and that the client receives a bug-free product.
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Types of Manual Software Testing
White-box Testing: White-box testing is performed by developers, who verify every piece of code prior to actually passing it on to the Test Engineer. Since the code is accessible to the developer during testing, it is also known as white box testing.
Black-box Testing: The Test Engineer does black box testing in order to examine the functions of the product or software in accordance with the demands of the customer or client. The code is not visible while testing, which is why it is referred to as black-box testing.
Gray-box Testing: Gray-box testing combines white box and black box testing. It can be conducted by someone who is familiar with both coding and testing.
Acceptance Testing: Acceptance testing, also known as User Acceptance Testing or UAT, is used to determine how closely an application adheres to the needs and expectations of the user. It is carried out once all bugs have been fixed. During acceptance testing, the product should be market-ready since this form of testing is meant to provide the user a clear picture of how the software application will look and behave in everyday life. Acceptance testing should be performed by the customer or a product user.
Beta Testing: Beta testing is a typical method for gathering input from real users during a soft opening before making the product available to the broader population. It enables software teams to obtain important insights from a diverse set of users through real-world application scenarios. Depending on the outcome of internal team testing, the product can be pushed out for beta testing. At this stage, it should be expected that the application can handle a significant number of traffic, especially if the beta testing audience is open. The realities of both private and open beta testing can necessitate extensive planning. During private or closed beta testing, access to the application is granted to a limited set of users who have been selected and specified, maybe through a submission and approval procedure. Whereas on the other hand, during open beta testing, anyone interested in using the application in its unreleased form can engage in reviewing the product. The benefit of open beta testing is that it allows for feedback from a diverse set of users.
Exploratory Testing: This type of testing has very little discipline or rules. Instead of following a fixed protocol for each test case, the inspector is allowed to “explore” and learn about the app while conducting tests. This technique of testing can be applied throughout the development and testing phases as desired by the team. Because of the absence of discipline, it is frequently conducted by people other than testers, such as artists, product managers, or developers
How to Carry Out Manual Software Testing?
In order to identify the testing regions, the tester first examines all software-related papers.
Then he or she analyses requirement documents to ensure that all of the customer’s requirements are met.
After that, he or she builds the test cases in accordance with the requirement specification.
All test cases are manually run via black box and white box testing.
If any issues are discovered throughout the testing phase, the testing team notifies the development team.
The development team resolves issues and passes the software to the testing team for retesting.
Software Development Life Cycle
A Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is, at its core, a project management approach. It defines the various stages required to take a project from its conception to deployment and later maintenance.
SDLC’s major stages are as follows:
Planning: The planning stage is when developers make plans for the forthcoming project. It aids in the identification of the problem and magnitude of any current systems, as well as the determination of the aims for future systems. It also establishes the project timetable, which is critical for the development of a commercial product since it is expected to be released to the market by a specific date.
Analysis: The analysis phase involves gathering all of the precise details necessary for a new system as well as developing the initial prototype concepts. The developer analyses specifics such as defining any prototype system requirements, reviewing alternatives to existing prototypes, conducting research and analysis to identify end-user demands, and so on.
Design: During the design stage, the developers will define the specifics for the entire system, as well as specific areas such as its system and user interfaces, network and network needs, and databases. They will convert the SRS document they generated into a more logical form that can be later implemented in a computer language. Plans for operation, training, and maintenance will be created so that developers know what they need to accomplish at each stage of the cycle as it progresses. Once that is done, the development managers will create a design document that will be used throughout the SDLC’s subsequent phases.
Development: The development stage is where developers actually begin coding to build the application based on the design documents and criteria that were previously established. The product program code is written in accordance with the design document standards. Developers shall adhere to any code standards established by the business. C++, PHP, and other programming languages are some examples of the programming languages that are used by developers. Based on the project objectives and requirements, developers will select the appropriate programming code to employ.
Testing: During the testing stage, developers go through their software and make a note of any issues or defects that need to be documented, rectified, and rechecked. Testing can be a very brief phase or a very long phase, depending on the developers’ expertise, the complexity of the software, and the end-user preferences.
Implementation and Integration: Through developer initiatives, various modules will be integrated into the core source code, typically by employing training environments to discover further defects. The information system will be integrated and finally placed into its surroundings. Once this stage is completed, the application will be potentially market-ready and can be distributed to any end-user.
Operations and Maintenance: Once the product is released to the public, the developers must enter a maintenance mode and begin performing any operations necessary to address concerns identified by end users. The developers are in charge of implementing any changes that the software may require after it has been deployed. This might involve dealing with leftover defects that were unable to be patched prior to launch or fixing new issues that arise as a result of user complaints.
Pros and Cons of Manual Software Testing
No Programming Expertise Required: When implementing the Black box approach, hardly any programming knowledge is necessary.
Facilitates Testing of GUI Designs: MT can be used to test dynamically changing GUI designs.
Resolves User Interface Issues: Since the tester interacts with the app as if they were a genuine user, they are able to identify usability and user interface issues.
100 Percent Bug-free Assurance: It guarantees that the product is completely bug-free.
Cost-effectiveness: It is affordable.
Simple to Use: It is simple to learn for new testers.
Human Resource Requirements: It necessitates a significant number of individuals.
No Evidence: Since the tester creates test cases based on their abilities and expertise, there is no proof whether they have covered all functionalities or not.
Single Use: Test cases have a one-time usage only and cannot be reused. Testers must create distinct test cases for each new piece of software.
Compatibility Issues: When two teams collaborate, it might be difficult to comprehend one other’s goals, which can mislead the process.
Time-consuming: Testing requires a lot of time and work.